Cystitis

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Overview

Acute cystitis is a sudden inflammation of the urinary bladder. Most of the time, a bacterial infection causes it. This infection is commonly referred to as a urinary tract infection (UTI).

Irritating hygiene products, a complication of certain diseases, or a reaction to certain drugs can also cause acute cystitis.

The treatment for acute cystitis due to a bacterial infection involves antibiotics. The treatment for noninfectious cystitis depends on the underlying cause.Overview. Cystitis (sis-TIE-tis) is the medical term for inflammation of the bladder. Most of the time, the inflammation is caused by a bacterial infection, and it's called a urinary tract infection (UTI).

Symptoms

The symptoms of acute cystitis can come on suddenly and can be very uncomfortable. The most common symptoms include:


a frequent and strong urge to urinate even after you empty your bladder, which is called frequency and urgency

a painful or burning sensation when urinating, which is called dysuria

foul- or strong-smelling urine

cloudy urine

a sensation of pressure, bladder fullness, or cramping in the middle of the lower abdomen or back

a low-grade fever

chills

the presence of blood in the urine

A strong, persistent urge to urinate.
A burning sensation when urinating.
Passing frequent, small amounts of urine.
Blood in the urine (hematuria)
Passing cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
Pelvic discomfort.
A feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen.
Low-grade fever.

Causes

The urinary system consists of the:


kidneys

ureters

urinary bladder

urethra

The kidneys filter waste from your blood and create urine. The urine then travels through tubes called ureters, one on the right and one on the left, to the bladder. The bladder stores the urine until you’re ready to urinate. Urine then travels out of the body through a tube called the urethra.


The most frequent cause of acute cystitis is an infection of the bladder caused by the bacterium E. coli.


Bacteria that cause UTIs typically enter the urethra and then travel up to the bladder. Once in the bladder, the bacteria stick to the bladder wall and multiply. This leads to inflammation of the tissue lining the bladder. The infection can also spread to the ureters and kidneys.


Although infections are the most common causes of acute cystitis, several other factors can cause the bladder and lower urinary tract to become inflamed. These include:


certain medications, particularly the chemotherapy drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide

radiation treatment of the pelvic area

the long-term use of a urinary catheter

sensitivities to certain products, such as feminine hygiene sprays, spermicidal jellies, or lotions

complications of other conditions, including diabetes mellitus, kidney stones, or an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hypertrophy)


Risk factors

Women are more prone to acute cystitis than men because their urethra is shorter and closer to the anal area, which can harbor harmful bacteria. This makes it easier for bacteria to get to the bladder. More than halfTrusted Source of all women experience at least one lower UTI in their lifetime.


The following factors can also increase your risk of acute cystitis:


engaging in sexual activity

using certain types of birth control such as diaphragms and spermicidal agents

wiping your genitals from the back toward the front after using the bathroom

experiencing menopause, as less estrogen causes changes in the urinary tract that make you more susceptible to infection

being born with abnormalities in the urinary tract

having kidney stones

having an enlarged prostate

using antibiotics frequently or for prolonged periods

having a condition that impairs the immune system, such as HIV or immunosuppressant therapy

having diabetes mellitus

being pregnant

using a urinary catheter

having urinary surgery


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Complications

Complications may include: Kidney infection. An untreated bladder infection can lead to kidney infection, also called pyelonephritis (pie-uh-low-nuh-FRY-tis). Kidney infections may permanently damage your kidneys.Most cases of acute bacterial cystitis are easily treated with an antibiotic. However, you should seek immediate medical attention if you have any of the symptoms of a kidney infection. The symptoms of a kidney infection include:


severe pain in the low back or side, which is called flank pain

a higher-grade fever

chills

nausea

vomiting

Prevention

wipe from front to back when you go to the toilet.

pee as soon as possible after sex.

drink plenty of fluids, especially water – so that you pee regularly during the day and do not feel thirsty.

have a shower rather than a bath – this stops exposing your genitals to cleaning products for too long.