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Melasma, formerly known as chloasma, is an acquired pigmentary condition, occurring most commonly on the face. This disorder, which is more prevalent in females and darker skin types, is predominantly attributed to ultraviolet (UV) exposure and hormonal influences. Melasma is generally a clinical diagnosis consisting of symmetric reticulated hypermelanosis in three predominant facial patterns: centrofacial, malar, and mandibular . The major clinical pattern in 50–80% of cases is the centrofacial pattern, which affects the forehead, nose, and upper lip, excluding the philtrum, cheeks, and chin . The malar pattern is restricted to the malar cheeks on the face, while mandibular melasma is present on the jawline and chin. The latter is thought to occur in older individuals and may be more related to severe photodamage . A newer pattern termed extra-facial melasma can occur on non-facial body parts, including the neck, sternum, forearms, and upper extremities . Though common, the management of this disorder remains challenging given the incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis, its chronicity, and recurrence rates. In addition to traditional treatments for melasma, there are also promising new treatments, including topical, oral, and procedural therapies. This review will provide an up-to-date overview of the current literature on melasma, including clinical diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatments including discussion of new topical, oral, and procedural therapies. This article is based on previously conducted studies and does not involve new studies of human or animal subjects performed by the authors.


Melasma causes patches and spots that are darker than your natural skin color. ...

Melasma develops on both sides of the face. ...

Melasma can cover a large area. ...

Melasma can be more noticeable in one area than another. ...

Melasma can appear on the sides of the face.


Melena often results from damage to the upper GI tract lining, swollen blood vessels, or bleeding disorders. The most common cause of melena is peptic ulcer disease, in which painful ulcers or sores develop in the stomach or small intestine. This can be caused by an infection of Heliobacter pylori (H.

Risk factors

Fair skin. ...

A history of sunburn. ...

Excessive ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. ...

Living closer to the equator or at a higher elevation. ...

Having many moles or unusual moles. ...

A family history of melanoma. ...

Weakened immune system.

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There are no known medical complications associated with melasma. It does not carry an increased risk of melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancers. The psychosocial burden of melasma can be an important consideration for many patients.



Abdominal Pain.



Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

Rectum Hemorrhage.


Do this by avoiding the sun, tanning beds, LED screens, irritating soaps and birth control that includes hormones. If you are exposed to the sun, be sure to wear sunscreen with iron oxides and a SPF of 30-50 applied every two hours, as well as a wide-brimmed hat. These steps may prevent your melasma from getting worse.

Doctors often use hydroquinone as the first line of treatment for melasma. Hydroquinone is available as a lotion, cream, or gel. It works by lightening the color of the skin patches. A person can apply the hydroquinone product directly to the patches of skin that are discolored or uneven.