Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of the skeletal muscles. The classic presentation is a fluctuating weakness that is more prominent in the afternoon. It usually involves muscles of the eyes, throat, and extremities. The reduced transmission of electrical impulses across the neuromuscular junction due to the formation of autoantibodies against the specific postsynaptic membrane proteins consequently causes muscle weakness. A wide variety of conditions can precipitate MG, such as infections, immunization, surgeries, and drugs.
Myasthenia gravis causes a significant number of complications. These include myasthenic crisis, an acute respiratory paralysis that requires intensive care, as well as adverse events due to long term medication treatment like opportunistic infections and lymphoproliferative malignancies.
A complete understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical manifestations, treatment strategies, and complications of myasthenia gravis is necessary for better patient care and outcomes.