Some people are born with pulmonary artery stenosis and have problems with their heart valves, walls or other parts of their heart as well. Others who have pulmonary artery stenosis at birth have no other heart issues. You can also develop the condition after heart surgery or from diseases that aren’t very common.
Congenital (since birth) causes of pulmonary artery stenosis
In 40% of cases, people are born with pulmonary artery stenosis but don’t have other heart problems.
Pulmonary artery stenosis happens in 2% to 3% of people who have other congenital (since birth) heart defects, such as:
Tetralogy of Fallot: A condition characterized by four problems in your child’s heart, impairing normal blood flow.
Pulmonary atresia: A defect in which the pulmonary valve, which connects the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery, doesn’t form at all. This keeps blood from flowing to your child’s lungs.
Truncus arteriosus: One combined heart artery instead of the normal two lets oxygen-rich blood blend with oxygen-poor blood.
Aortic valve stenosis: A problem with this valve reduces how much blood goes from your child’s heart to their body.
Atrial septal defect: A hole in the wall between your child’s two upper heart chambers (atria) lets blood with and without oxygen mix.
Ventricular septal defect: A hole in the wall that separates your child’s two lower chambers (ventricles) can make too much blood go to their lungs.
Transposition of the great vessels: The two major arteries that carry blood away from your child’s heart are in each other’s places. This impairs normal blood flow and limits how much oxygen can get to your child’s cells.
Patent ductus arteriosus: This is a connection between your child’s pulmonary artery and aorta. If it doesn’t close after birth as it should, too much blood goes to the lungs.
Other causes of pulmonary artery stenosis can include issues such as:
Rubella syndrome, a group of heart and other health problems your child gets from a rubella infection their birthing parent has while pregnant.
Williams syndrome, a group of abnormalities affecting your child’s heart and other organs.
Alagille syndrome, which causes liver problems and heart issues.
Takayasu’s arteritis, a type of inflammation that damages large blood vessels.
Problems that compress your child’s pulmonary artery from the outside.
Surgical causes of pulmonary artery stenosis
Some people get pulmonary artery stenosis after having a surgical procedure. These include:
Surgery to fix your child’s congenital heart issue or improve blood flow through their heart.
Pulmonary artery banding. This purposely narrows your child’s artery to reduce blood flow to their lungs.