Dengue Fever

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Overview

Dengue fever is an illness you can get from the bite of a mosquito carrying one of four types of dengue virus (DENV). The virus is most commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions, including Central and South America, Africa, parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands.


Dengue isn’t contagious from person to person except when passed from a pregnant person to their child. Symptoms are usually mild with your first infection, but if you get another infection with a different version of DENV, your risk of severe complications goes up.


Symptoms

Symptoms of dengue fever may be mild or severe. In mild cases, common symptoms include:


A sudden high fever

A headache.

Eye pain.

Joint and muscle pain.

A rash.

Nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

The fever usually lasts up to a week and may come and go.


After the initial fever, some people may have more serious symptoms that may be signs of dengue hemorrhagic fever. These can include:


Signs of bleeding, such as:

Red patches that may look like bruises or tiny red spots.

Bleeding from the nose, mouth, or gums.

Vomiting blood.

Stools that look like black tar.

Severe belly pain.

Signs of shock .

Causes


Dengue Fever

Dengue (say "DEN-gay") fever is a disease caused by a virus that is carried by mosquitoes. Mild cases cause a rash and flu-like symptoms. Some people, especially children, can get more serious forms of the illness, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.

Dengue fever is spread through the bite of mosquitoes that carry the virus. The virus cannot spread from person to person through casual contact. People who have dengue fever should be protected from mosquito bites. If a mosquito bites an infected person, the mosquito becomes infected with the virus and can pass it to other people.

Outbreaks are common in many countries in Latin America and Southeast Asia. The disease also occurs in Africa, parts of the Middle East, the Western Pacific, Puerto Rico, and other tropical and subtropical areas. footnote1 Travelers visiting these regions may become infected.

Dengue fever is caused by any one of four types of dengue viruses. You can't get dengue fever from being around an infected person. Instead, dengue fever is spread through mosquito bites. The two types of mosquitoes that most often spread the dengue viruses are common both in and around human lodgings.

Risk factors

Risk factors for severe dengue fever were secondary infection (p = 0.02), and co-morbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension (p < 0.001). Age, gender, nationality, socioeconomic status, viral serotype, and access to health care were not significantly associated with severe disease.


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Complications

Severe dengue is a potentially fatal complication, due to plasma leaking, fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, severe bleeding, or organ impairment. Warning signs that doctors should look for include: severe abdominal pain. persistent vomiting.

Prevention

There is no vaccine to prevent dengue fever. And people who have had it before can get it again. If you plan to travel to an area where dengue fever is common, make sure to protect yourself against mosquito bites. Here are some guidelines:


Wear protective clothing (long pants and long-sleeved shirts).

Use insect repellent with DEET (N,N diethylmetatoluamide). The repellent is available in varying strengths up to 100%. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and other experts suggest that it is safe to use a repellent that contains 10% to 30% DEET on children older than age 2 months.

Spray clothing with an insect repellent containing permethrin or DEET, because mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing. (Be aware that DEET can damage plastic items, such as watch crystals or eyeglass frames, and some synthetic fabrics.)

Sleep under bed nets (mosquito netting) sprayed with or soaked in an insecticide such as permethrin or deltamethrin.

Use flying-insect spray indoors around sleeping areas.There is no vaccine to prevent dengue fever. And people who have had it before can get it again. If you plan to travel to an area where dengue fever is common, make sure to protect yourself against mosquito bites. Here are some guidelines:


Wear protective clothing (long pants and long-sleeved shirts).

Use insect repellent with DEET (N,N diethylmetatoluamide). The repellent is available in varying strengths up to 100%. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and other experts suggest that it is safe to use a repellent that contains 10% to 30% DEET on children older than age 2 months.

Spray clothing with an insect repellent containing permethrin or DEET, because mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing. (Be aware that DEET can damage plastic items, such as watch crystals or eyeglass frames, and some synthetic fabrics.)

Sleep under bed nets (mosquito netting) sprayed with or soaked in an insecticide such as permethrin or deltamethrin.

Use flying-insect spray indoors around sleeping areas.

Maintain adequate hydration. Drink plenty of fluids (water, isotonic drinks, fruit juices and soup) to maintain hydration. ...

Keep symptoms under control. Fever and joint pains can be relieved by taking paracetamol. ...

Avoid bleeding. ...

Foods to eat and avoid.