Diabetes type 2

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Overview

Type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes, is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes mainly from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose get into your cells to be used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Too much glucose then stays in your blood, and not enough reaches your cells.

Symptoms

Symptoms of diabetes include


increased thirst and urination

increased hunger

feeling tired

blurred vision

numbness or tingling in the feet or hands

sores that do not heal

unexplained weight loss

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart disease.

Causes

Type 2 diabetes is caused by several factors, including


overweight and obesity

not being physically active

insulin resistance

genes

Type 2 diabetes is primarily the result of two interrelated problems: Cells in muscle, fat and the liver become resistant to insulin. Because these cells don't interact in a normal way with insulin, they don't take in enough sugar.We believe that it is an auto-immune disorder where the body mistakenly destroys insulin producing cells in the pancreas. Typically, the pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. The insulin circulates, letting sugar enter your cells.

Type 2 diabetes is primarily the result of two interrelated problems: Cells in muscle, fat and the liver become resistant to insulin. Because these cells don't interact in a normal way with insulin, they don't take in enough sugar.

Risk factors

Have prediabetes.

Are overweight.

Are 45 years or older.

Have a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes.

Are physically active less than 3 times a week.

Have ever had gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or given birth to a baby who weighed over 9 pounds.

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Complications

Complications

Heart and blood vessel disease. ...

Nerve damage (neuropathy) in limbs. ...

Other nerve damage. ...

Kidney disease. ...

Eye damage. ...

Skin conditions. ...

Slow healing. ...

Hearing impairment.

Prevention

Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable by taking several simple steps: keeping weight under control, exercising more, eating a healthy diet, and not smoking. Yet it is clear that the burden of behavior change cannot fall entirely on individuals.

erhaps you have learned that you have a high chance of developing type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes. You might be overweight or have a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes. Maybe you had gestational diabetes, which is diabetes that develops during pregnancy. These are just a few examples of factors that can raise your chances of developing type 2 diabetes.


Diabetes can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, and eye and foot problems. Prediabetes also can cause health problems. The good news is that type 2 diabetes can be delayed or even prevented. The longer you have diabetes, the more likely you are to develop health problems, so delaying diabetes by even a few years will benefit your health. You can help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by losing a modest amount of weight by following a reduced-calorie eating plan and being physically active most days of the week. Ask your doctor if you should take the diabetes drug metformin NIH external link to help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.1