Diverticular disease was first described in the early 20th century but was rarely encountered at that time. Since then, the prevalence of this disease increased from 5%-10% in 1930 and to 35%-50% in 1969 according to an autopsy series. No subsequent population-based studies have been reported. At this point, the etiology and disease course of this disease have been sufficiently well researched to allow for diagnosis and treatment of this condition. However, due to the lack of research evidence, treatment options are not well defined. For example, many patients presenting with acute diverticulitis are treated conservatively and receive antibiotics as a standard course of care. A recent study, however, has shown that outcomes for patients treated with antibiotics were not significantly different from patients treated with only observation. This suggests that there is considerable room for improvement in our understanding of this disease and optimal treatment plans.